A stark spatial hierarchy is emerging in the United States. Big cities are ascendant, enjoying accelerated job growth in a knowledge-driven economy, while midsize cities, small metro areas and rural communities struggle to keep pace. These geographic fault lines have provoked a debate about how to revitalize rural America.
What if the best way to rejuvenate small towns is to invest in cities?
There is already clear evidence that the economic prosperity of cities and metropolitan areas benefits small towns. Studies in Georgia, Illinois, Minnesota, New York, Washington and Wisconsin have found that urban and suburban centers subsidize rural areas by generating more revenue for states than they receive back in education, infrastructure and other public investments.
Rural communities also tend to have stronger economies when they are similar to or near cities. For instance, “micropolitan areas” — rural communities with small urban centers — have rebounded to near-pre-recession employment levels, and rural communities adjacent to cities fare better than remote counties.
The prospects for remote rural counties are sobering. Since 2001, job growth there has lagged behind that of other types of communities, with the exception of a brief boom fueled by the energy sector between 2010 and 2014. In recent years, as the tech sector began to drive post-recession growth, the employment trends in remote rural counties and small towns have greatly diverged from those of metro areas.
Rural communities in both red and blue states reinforce this trend.
In Kentucky, Hart County borders the small cities of Bowling Green and Elizabethtown-Fort Knox (and is near Louisville) and has shown rapid growth over the past decade. Letcher County, which doesn’t border any metropolitan area, has lost nearly a third of the jobs it had in 2008.
In Minnesota, rural Pope County borders the fast-growing city of St. Cloud and has nearly 15 percent more jobs today than in 2008. By contrast, the remote county of Roseau has lost jobs.
These communities are demographically similar (each over 90 percent white and with populations of 10,000 to 25,000), but their leading industries differ. Hart County in Kentucky and Roseau County in Minnesota are manufacturing hubs, while mining and agriculture have outsize roles in Kentucky’s Letcher County and Minnesota’s Pope County.
Still, it seems clear that Hart and Pope are growing in part because of their proximity to fast-growing cities, while Letcher and Roseau are disadvantaged by their distance from them. One indication of this: According to recent census data, 43 percent of Hart County workers and 24 percent of Pope County workers commuted to a nearby metropolitan or micropolitan area. Just 7 percent of workers in Letcher County and fewer than 1 percent of workers in Roseau County did.
Proximity to cities does not solely explain rural prosperity. And some direct investments, such as broadband and rural entrepreneurship, can improve rural fortunes. Yet in an economy where private investment flows to places with dense clusters of prized assets, the best rural policy may be supporting the development of small and midsize cities across the country, improving rural residents’ access to jobs, customers, training programs and small-business financing.
In short, the best strategy to mend the nation’s regional divides is one that supports cities and small towns.
Amy Liu is vice president and director and Nathan Arnosti a policy analyst at the Metropolitan Policy Program at the Brookings Institution. (Jacob Whiton assisted with the data.)
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新版跑狗图解玄机【不】【仅】【仅】【如】【此】，【还】【有】【很】【多】【人】，【居】【然】【是】【抬】【着】【棺】【材】【来】【的】。 【那】【棺】【材】【之】【中】，【想】【必】【应】【该】【是】【他】【们】【老】【祖】【的】【尸】【体】，【渴】【望】【着】【放】【入】【冥】【府】【之】【中】，【获】【得】【重】【生】。 【沈】【铭】【扭】【头】【看】【了】【一】【眼】。 【嘴】【角】【一】【抽】。 【有】【些】【棺】【材】【上】【面】【还】【挂】【着】【泥】【土】，【应】【该】【是】【刚】【刚】【挖】【出】【来】【的】，【他】【们】【还】【真】【的】【是】【拼】【了】。 【不】【过】【沈】【铭】【倒】【也】【能】【够】【理】【解】。 【为】【了】【能】【够】【活】【着】。 【人】【们】【已】【经】
【搞】【定】【了】【黄】【姆】【蓉】，【张】【振】【东】【又】【把】【蔡】【家】【的】【十】【五】【个】【人】【才】，【也】【都】【带】【去】【了】【恨】【天】【世】【界】，【给】【他】【们】【好】【处】，【给】【他】【们】【强】【化】，【包】【括】【蔡】【家】【的】【中】【年】【大】【叔】！ 【当】【所】【有】【人】【都】【心】【满】【意】【足】，【对】【张】【振】【东】【的】【手】【段】【惊】【为】【天】【人】，【无】【比】【敬】【畏】【了】，【张】【振】【东】【才】【放】【心】【的】【离】【开】【这】【娱】【乐】【公】【司】。【然】【后】【去】【拜】【访】【韩】【澄】【黎】【和】【李】【昊】【春】。 【因】【为】【她】【们】【距】【离】“【南】【霸】【娱】【乐】【公】【司】”【不】【远】。 【韩】【澄】【黎】【在】【那】【里】【的】【艺】
【看】【这】【架】【势】，【他】【要】【喂】【顾】【蕊】【喝】【了】。 【紫】【芝】【见】【状】，【对】【着】【雪】【翎】【和】【几】【个】【小】【太】【监】【使】【了】【个】【眼】【色】，【悄】【悄】【地】【退】【了】【出】【去】。 【帝】【后】【如】【此】【这】【般】【也】【是】【常】【见】，【她】【们】【也】【都】【习】【惯】【了】。 【顾】【蕊】【一】【见】【陆】【凌】【风】【吹】【汤】，【眉】【头】【就】【皱】【了】【起】【来】，【哼】【唧】【着】，“【你】【可】【别】【喂】【我】，【告】【诉】【你】，【我】【不】【喝】。” “【别】【啊】，【大】【冷】【的】【天】【儿】，【喝】【点】【儿】【怕】【什】【么】？”【陆】【凌】【风】【舀】【了】【一】【勺】【放】【在】【唇】【边】【吹】新版跑狗图解玄机【刘】【博】【和】【姬】【荡】【二】【人】【率】【领】【着】【南】【极】【门】【的】【士】【兵】【一】【路】【高】【歌】【猛】【进】，【原】【本】【他】【们】【以】【为】【宗】【城】【都】【要】【攻】【打】【好】【几】【天】，【但】【是】【令】【他】【们】【意】【外】【的】【是】，【宗】【城】【既】【然】【被】【打】【开】，【宗】【主】【也】【被】【他】【们】【抓】【到】【了】【城】【外】，【这】【些】【人】【将】【所】【有】【的】【罪】【责】【都】【怪】【罪】【在】【了】【宗】【主】【的】【身】【上】，【意】【思】【很】【明】【显】，【要】【惩】【罚】【就】【惩】【罚】【宗】【主】【一】【个】【人】。【姬】【荡】【和】【刘】【博】【看】【到】【宗】【主】【如】【此】【的】【落】【魄】【与】【不】【堪】，【姬】【荡】【便】【说】【道】：“【树】【倒】【猢】【狲】【散】
【随】【心】【从】“【佛】”【门】【出】【来】【就】【到】【了】【一】【间】【宽】【敞】【的】【大】【厅】，【大】【厅】【周】【围】【由】【寒】【冰】【制】【成】【的】【巨】【石】【围】【砌】【成】【圆】【弧】【模】【样】，【地】【面】【正】【中】【是】【一】【座】【高】【出】【地】【面】【的】【圆】【形】【石】【台】，【其】【余】【六】【人】【均】【站】【在】【石】【台】【周】【围】。 “【小】【丫】！”【随】【心】【一】【声】【惊】【呼】，【小】【丫】【怎】【么】【会】【在】【这】【里】？【小】【丫】【这】【是】【怎】【么】【了】？ 【小】【丫】【漂】【浮】【在】【石】【台】【上】【方】，【身】【体】【被】【一】【个】【无】【形】【的】【太】【极】【图】【托】【浮】【着】，【一】【个】【结】【界】【把】【小】【丫】【护】【在】【太】
【当】【天】，【楚】【南】【星】【到】【了】【后】【半】【夜】【才】【回】【来】。 【原】【本】【以】【为】【所】【有】【人】【都】【睡】【了】，【结】【果】【到】【了】【大】【门】【口】，【发】【现】【屋】【里】【还】【亮】【着】【灯】。 【她】【满】【身】【血】【污】【走】【进】【来】，【看】【到】【其】【他】【人】【关】【切】【的】【脸】，“【不】【是】【我】【的】【血】。” 【楚】【南】【星】【扬】【了】【扬】【手】【里】【的】【羊】【皮】【口】【袋】，【那】【是】【她】【日】【常】【装】【晶】【核】【用】【的】，【比】【登】【山】【包】【容】【量】【还】【大】【一】【些】，【放】【在】【她】【那】【里】，【却】【轻】【的】【像】【羽】【毛】【似】【的】。 【许】【燕】【归】【说】【道】，“【你】
【很】【惭】【愧】，【隔】【了】【一】【年】【多】【时】【间】【才】【回】【来】。【说】【真】【的】，【现】【在】【我】【写】【下】【这】【些】【文】【字】【的】【时】【候】【都】【有】【种】【无】【地】【自】【容】【的】【感】【觉】。 【时】【间】【真】【的】【隔】【了】【太】【久】【了】，【久】【到】【我】【自】【己】【都】【有】【点】【恐】【惧】【登】【陆】【作】【者】【后】【台】。 【我】【怕】【看】【到】【你】【们】【的】【批】【评】，【我】【怕】【看】【到】【你】【们】【的】【催】【促】，【因】【为】【我】【不】【知】【道】【该】【怎】【么】【回】【应】【你】【们】。 【工】【作】【太】【忙】。 【这】【是】【真】【的】。 【这】【是】【我】【一】【直】【没】【敢】【开】【新】【书】【的】【原】【因】，